CNC turning is a type of computerized machining process that uses G-code to control and automate the movement of cutting tools. G-code is a programming language that instructs CNC machines on how to perform precise machining tasks like cutting, shaping, or drilling metal workpieces. If you're looking to master CNC turning, having a comprehensive G-code list on hand will be essential to your success. In this blog, we will discuss the most commonly used G-codes in CNC turning and provide example use-cases to help you become more familiar with these crucial commands.
G00 - Rapid Positioning
G00 is used for rapid positioning, which allows you to move a cutting tool quickly to a specified point without cutting the material. This G-code is essential for reducing non-cutting time and increasing productivity.
G00 X30 Y20
G01 - Linear Interpolation
G01 commands linear interpolation, meaning that the machine moves the cutting tool in a straight line between two specified points.
G01 X20 Y30 F100
G02 - Circular Interpolation Clockwise
G02 is used to perform circular interpolation in a clockwise direction, meaning that the cutting tool moves in a circle around a specified center point in a clockwise manner.
G02 X40 Y40 I20 J20
G03 - Circular Interpolation Counterclockwise
G03 performs the same function as G02, but the direction of the circular motion is counterclockwise.
G03 X50 Y50 I30 J30
G04 - Dwell Time
G04 is used to temporarily pause the CNC machine, allowing you to set a delay before the machine resumes its operation. This G-code can be useful for letting the cutting tool cool down or for waiting for a spindle to reach the correct speed.
G20 - Inch Units Mode
Setting G20 will change the CNC machine's programming mode to inches, thus interpreting all coordinate values as inches.
G21 - Metric Units Mode
G21 is similar to G20, but it switches the programming mode to metric millimeters.
G28 - Return to Home Position
G28 is used to send the cutting tool to the machine's home position, which is often used as a starting point or reference for cutting operations.
G28 X0 Y0
G40 - Cutter Compensation Off
G40 disables cutter compensation, which means the machine no longer considers the size of the cutting tool when calculating the necessary movements. This G-code is typically used when cutter compensation is not required.
G41 - Cutter Compensation Left
G41 activates cutter compensation on the left side of the cutting path, taking into account the size of the cutting tool when calculating cutting paths.
G42 - Cutter Compensation Right
G42 functions similarly to G41 but applies cutter compensation on the right side of the cutting path.
G70 - Finish Turning Cycle
G70 is a cycle specifically designed for finish turning operations, utilizing a previously defined G71 roughing cycle to complete precise finishing passes in a streamlined manner.
G70 P1 Q1
G71 - Rough Turning Cycle
G71 defines a rough turning cycle that removes large amounts of material with high-speed passes. This cycle is typically used before a G70 finish turning cycle.
G71 P1 Q1 U2 W2 F100
G73 - Chip Breaking Cycle
G73 is a cycle that allows for more efficient chip breaking during turning operations. It creates multiple pecking passes to help break chips into smaller sizes, aiding in their removal.
G73 P1 Q1 R1
G90 - Absolute Positioning
G90 is used to switch the CNC machine to absolute positioning mode, where all coordinate values are referenced from the machine's home location.
G91 - Incremental Positioning
Opposite of G90, G91 switches the CNC machine to incremental positioning mode, with coordinate values being referenced from the current tool position.
Armed with this comprehensive G-code list, you are well on your way to mastering CNC turning operations. Don't forget to practice regularly and always double-check your G-code commands to ensure optimal results.g code list for cnc turning